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Why do we need data center interconnection?

  What is a data center?   With the continuous development of industrial digital transformation, data becomes a key production factor, and data center shoulders the heavy responsibility of computing, storing and forwarding data, and is the most critical digital infrastructure in the new infrastructure. Modern data centers mainly include the following core components. Computing system, including general-purpose computing modules for deploying business and high-performance computing modules for providing super computing power, etc. Storage systems, including mass storage modules, data management engines, storage private networks, etc. Energy system, including power supply module, temperature control module, IT management module, etc. Data center network, which is responsible for linking general-purpose computing, high-performance computing and storage modules inside the data center, and all data interactions between them are realized through the data center network. Among them, it is the general-purpose computing module that directly undertakes the user's business, and the physical basic unit it relies on is a large number of servers. If the server is the body of the data center, then the data center network is the soul of the data center.     Why do we need data center interconnection? At present, data center construction is common in various organizations and enterprises, but it is difficult for a single data center to adapt to the business needs of the new era, and there is an urgent need for multi-data center interconnection. This is mainly reflected in the following aspects.   Rapid growth of business scale Currently, emerging businesses such as cloud computing and intelligence are developing rapidly, and the number of related applications is also increasing rapidly, and these applications are strongly dependent on data centers. Therefore, the scale of business undertaken by data centers is growing rapidly, and the resources of individual data centers will soon be insufficient. Restricted by factors such as the area occupied by data center construction and energy supply, a single data center cannot be expanded indefinitely, and when the business scale grows to a certain extent, multiple data centers need to be built in the same city or off-site. At this time, multiple data centers need to be interconnected to collaborate with each other to complete the business support. In addition, in the context of economic digital transformation, in order to achieve common business success, enterprises within the same industry and between different industries need to frequently share and cooperate at the data level, which also requires interconnection and interoperability between data centers of different enterprises.   Cross-geographic user access is becoming increasingly common In recent years, the business of data centers has changed from being centered on Web services to cloud services and data services, and the scope of users of related organizations and enterprises has long been unrestricted by geography. Especially in the case of very popular mobile Internet, users expect to enjoy high-quality services anytime and anywhere. In order to meet these demands and further enhance user experience, enterprises with the conditions usually build multiple data centers in different geographic areas to facilitate cross-territory user access in close proximity. This requires business deployment across data centers, and needs to support multi-data center interconnection.  



"Cold" and "Hot" in Data Centers

Immersion liquid cooling is to immerse the server covered with dense red and yellow threads in a water-like liquid, only that the liquid is not ordinary water, but a special insulating coolant, and the heat generated in the server computing is absorbed by the coolant and then enters the external cooling cycle.   The energy consumption of a data center is roughly composed of communication and network equipment, power supply and distribution system, lighting and auxiliary equipment, and cooling system, of which the cooling part accounts for about 40% of the total energy consumption of the data center.   In the past, air cooling has been widely used due to its low cost and simple deployment. However, in recent years, with the rise of high-density computing, chip, server performance and single cabinet power density continue to improve, submerged liquid cooling began to be favored. In the early days, data centers could still only rely on a few mainframes to complete local data calculations, which not only could not do distributed computing, but also could not provide services to the outside world. It was not until the mid-1990s that the Internet emerged and had a huge impact on the market. With the demand for companies to support Internet business applications, data centers were accepted as a service model for most companies.   After 2010, with the rise of cloud computing technology, cloud data centers have gradually come back into the limelight. Compared with the previous ones, the infrastructure of cloud data centers is more scaled, standardized and intelligent, with lower construction costs and more services carried.   Looking back at the history of data center development, it is easy to see that data has gradually become a new production factor, and its importance for productivity development is constantly rising. As we all know, the carrier of data center is one IT equipment, and the computing power of all IT equipment is determined by the chip. From the current point of view, the power consumption of the mainstream chips of the entire server is growing, and even in recent years there has been a considerable slope up. As the power of the server chip grows from 100W, 200W to 350W, 400W, the power consumption of the server will have a doubling, which determines the single cabinet power density from the earliest 4KW, 6KW growth to 15KW to 20KW. Obviously, under such a trend, the traditional air-cooling method can no longer meet the heat dissipation and cooling needs of data centers. Currently, air cooling technology is still used on a large scale. As we continue to enhance the air cooling technology, such as increasing its volume, area, heat pipe technology and various advanced technologies, as well as doing various optimizations at the data center level with the rack level and nodes, the PUE of the data center can also be reduced to about 1.2. But then we also found that even with all these optimizations, up to 20% of the energy consumption is still wasted on data center cooling and maintenance, plus the energy consumption of system fans. This is still not ideal for the carbon reduction goal.



What is the difference between precision air conditioners and ordinary air conditioners?

    It is natural to use air conditioners for computer room projects. When choosing the air conditioner for the refrigeration system of the data center, many IT personnel in the data center thought that ordinary air conditioners can also be used for cooling the computer room, and believed that the energy efficiency of ordinary air conditioners is high, so it can be Reduce the energy consumption of the refrigeration system.   As we all know, usually 30% of the cooling load of ordinary air conditioners is to eliminate the latent heat load, and 70% is to eliminate the sensible heat load. For precision air conditioners, the situation is quite different, mainly to eliminate the sensible heat emitted by the equipment in the equipment room, the heat load emitted by the indoor staff, and the heat and humidity load of the fresh air entering the room in summer (only 5 of the total load). %). This determines that they will be different in terms of design usage, application scenarios, and functional focus.     Q1. Can the small project be replaced by a small ordinary air conditioner?   Q2. What is the essential difference between ordinary air conditioners and precision air conditioners?   1. different basic concepts   Ordinary air conditioners generally include household air conditioners, central air conditioners in residential areas, and air conditioning systems in offices and commercial office buildings. The function of this type of air conditioner is to create a good living environment for indoor air, provide people with a comfortable working and living environment, and make people in this space feel comfortable.   The precision air conditioner is designed to meet the requirements of the special process and specific environment of the precision equipment. Its purpose is to precisely control its temperature, humidity, etc. and require it to be controlled within a certain range. It is also called constant temperature and humidity air conditioner, which is characterized by large air volume and heat load Variety.       2. Product focus   Due to different design uses, the product focus will also be very different.   Ordinary air conditioners are designed to "provide people with a comfortable working and living environment". Its applicable object is people, and its application scenarios are mainly in semi-open areas where people are active: such as living rooms, bedrooms, exhibition halls, offices, etc. Ordinary air conditioners do not have the function of "constant temperature and humidity", and the temperature difference range is 1 °C. Therefore, ordinary air conditioners pay more attention to the design of comfort, low noise, low air supply and low wind speed during use.     Precision air conditioners are designed to "provide a specific operating environment with constant temperature and humidity for precision devices such as IT equipment". This is a high-precision air conditioner specially designed for computer rooms. In order to ensure good heat dissipation of computer or server chips, the application scenarios include computer rooms, laboratories, large medical equipment rooms and other high-precision fields. Its service object is related equipment that maintains the continuous operation of the computer room: such as IT equipment, power distribution system, power supply equipment, etc. The precision air conditioner has the function of "constant temperature and humidity", and the temperature difference range can be controlled at 0.1 degrees Celsius or even higher. Therefore, precision air conditioners pay more attention to the design of precise control of temperature and humidity in the equipment room and timely control of cleanliness.     3. Different control systems   Ordinary air conditioners only have a basic control system. According to their own heating and cooling needs, people operate through the infrared remote control or the smart remote control downloaded from the mobile APP. The intelligence is relatively moderate; and cooling and dehumidification can only be performed at the same time. Direction local air circulation.   Precision air conditioners have a high-precision, responsive, microprocessor-based intelligent control system that can quickly respond to changes in the external environment, thereby ensuring that environmental changes remain within the setting range required for a stable environment. For example, human-computer interaction interface, alarm protection, network monitoring and other functions.     4. Different degrees of air filtration   Ordinary air conditioners use coarse filters, which cannot remove enough dust particles. The dust will adhere to the high-efficiency chips to a large extent, which will seriously affect the service life of related components and cannot meet the purification requirements of computers. Most common air conditioners use residential-type air filters with a filtration efficiency of only 10%. This is not enough for a data center environment.   The precision air conditioner uses a high-efficiency filter, its efficiency can reach 20%~30%, and it meets the ASHRAE standard, which can filter out the dust in the air in a timely and efficient manner, which can effectively prevent the dust from adhering to the high-frequency chip and cause a short circuit due to carbonization. Improve the cleanliness, prolong the service life of related parts, and reduce operation and maintenance costs.       5. Different operating performance and cost   Common air conditioners used in most office buildings run for an average of 8 hours a day, 5 days a week, while some commercial places, such as supermarkets and shopping malls, run an average of 12 hours a day, 7 days a week. Sometimes there are environmental changes or special needs that increase the runtime. For precision air conditioners, no matter what the external environment is, most data centers require uninterrupted operation 24 hours a day, 365 days a year.   And those ordinary air conditioners with outdoor heat exchangers generally cannot operate when the external ambient temperature drops below 32°F because the pressure is too low. However, precision air conditioners operate normally at -30°F, while glycol refrigeration systems cool normally at -60°F.   Although the initial investment of precision air conditioners is basically much higher than that of ordinary air conditioners. However, the annual operating cost of ordinary air conditioners is higher than that of precision air conditioners by $243/per ton of sensible cooling capacity. This is consistent with the principle generally recognized by the industry, that is, the refrigerating capacity of 3 ton of ordinary air conditioner is equivalent to 2 ton of refrigerating capacity of precision air conditioner.   Therefore, for those small projects, in the case of sufficient funds, it is recommended to consider both the initial investment and operating costs; and for some large projects, it is still recommended to use precision air conditioners, which are designed for uninterrupted operation throughout the year. Intelligent control system, constant temperature and humidity functions, components and redundant functions, etc., will greatly improve the reliability of equipment operation, and will greatly reduce operation and maintenance costs in the later stage.



Application Reference--Mongolian Mining Corporation Data Center recommended Solution:

Mongolian Mining Corporation is a high-quality coking coal producer and exporter in Mongolia. The Company owns and operates two open-pit coking coal mines - Ukhaa Khudag and Baruun Naran, both located in Umnugobi aimag of Mongolia. The main requirement of energy & power data centers is: reliability first, economy and energy saving It is recommended to use CyberMaster medium and large computer room air conditioning series (link) water-cooled type, double cold source type, chilled water double coil type or single coil type unit Data Center Features: ● The computer room area is more than 500㎡ ● Single rack load is about 5kW, ● There is a high heat density rack area with a single rack load greater than 5kW ● 365 × 24 hours uninterrupted operation ● Indoor requirements: temperature requirements 23 ℃ ± 2, humidity requirements 50% ± 5, cleanliness requirements ≥0.5μ≤18000 grains / liter Main Requirement: ● Reliability: At least 99.999% is required, the system has no single point of failure, the failure can be resolved within 10 minutes or there is a backup plan switch ● Energy-saving: The application of energy-efficient equipment, the system energy-saving design, operation energy-saving and design energy-saving are taken into consideration. ● Economy: The overall investment is optimal, and it can be invested in batches to reduce the cost of capital. ● Maintainability: The maintenance cost is the lowest, the maintenance professional requirements are the lowest, and the maintenance difficulty is the least.